Visceral Manipulation (VM)
was developed by world-renowned French Osteopath and Physical Therapist Jean-Pierre Barral. Comparative Studies found Visceral Manipulation Beneficial for Various Disorders
內臟筋膜鬆動術(VM) 是由世界知名的法國骨病醫師和物理治療師Jean-Pierre Barral從多年臨床研究所發展出的創新治療手法。研究發現VM對多種病症皆有益處。如下
Acute Disorders 急性症狀
Seatbelt Injuries 安全帶傷害
Chest or Abdominal Sports Injuries 胸部及腹部運動損傷
Digestive Disorders 消化系統功能紊亂
Bloating and Constipation 腹脹和便祕
Nausea and Acid Reflux 噁心及胃酸倒流
Swallowing Dysfunctions 吞嚥功能障礙
Women's and Men's Health Issues 男/女性健康問題
Chronic Pelvic Pain 慢性骨盆疼痛
Fibroids and Cysts 子宮肌瘤與囊腫
Bladder Incontinence 尿失禁
Prostate Dysfunction 前列腺功能障礙
Referred Testicular Pain 睪丸疼痛
Effects of Menopause 更年期之影響
Emotional Issues 情緒問題
Anxiety and Depression 焦慮及抑鬱
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 創傷後之壓力障礙
Musculoskeletal Disorders 肌肉骨骼系統疾病
Somatic-Visceral Interactions 身體-內臟之交互影響
Chronic Spinal Dysfunction 漫性脊髓性功能障礙
Headaches and Migraines 頭痛與偏頭痛
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 腕隧道症候群
Peripheral Joint Pain 周邊關節疼痛
Pain Related to 疼痛相關
Post-operative Scar Tissue 術後疤痕組織
Post-infection Scar Tissue 感染後疤痕組織
Autonomic Mechanisms 自律神經相關機制
Pediatric Issues 小兒問題
Constipation and Gastritis 便祕與胃炎
Persistent Vomiting 持續嘔吐
Vesicoureteral Reflux 膀胱輸尿管逆流
Infant Colic 嬰兒腸絞痛
VM assists functional and structural imbalances throughout the body including musculoskeletal, vascular, nervous, urogenital, respiratory, digestive and lymphatic dysfunction. It evaluates and treats the dynamics of motion and suspension in relation to organs, membranes, fascia and ligaments. VM increases proprioceptive communication within the body, thereby revitalizing a person and relieving symptoms of pain, dysfunction, and poor posture.
An integrative approach to evaluation and treatment of a patient requires assessment of the structural relationships between the viscera, and their fascial or ligamentous attachments to the musculoskeletal system. Strains in the connective tissue of the viscera can result from surgical scars, adhesions, illness, posture or injury. Tension patterns form through the fascial network deep within the body, creating a cascade of effects far from their sources for which the body will have to compensate. This creates fixed, abnormal points of tension that the body must move around, and this chronic irritation gives way to functional and structural problems.
Imagine an adhesion around the lungs. It would create a modified axis that demands abnormal accommodations from nearby body structures. For example, the adhesion could alter rib motion, which could then create imbalanced forces on the vertebral column and, with time, possibly develop a dysfunctional relationship with other structures. This scenario highlights just one of hundreds of possible ramifications of a small dysfunction - magnified by thousands of repetitions each day.
There are definite links between somatic structures, such as the muscles and joints, the sympathetic nervous system, the visceral organs, the spinal cord and the brain. For example, the sinuvertebral nerves innervate the intervertebral disks and have direct connections with the sympathetic nervous system, which innervates the visceral organs. The sinuvertebral nerves and sympathetic nervous system are linked to the spinal cord, which has connections with the brain. In this way someone with chronic pain can have irritations and facilitated areas not only in the musculoskeletal system (including joints, muscles, fascia, and disks) but also the visceral organs and their connective tissues (including the liver, stomach, gallbladder, intestines and adrenal glands), the peripheral nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system and even the spinal cord and brain.
Thanks to the dedicated work of Jean-Pierre Barral, a Physiotherapist (RPT) and Osteopath (DO), healthcare practitioners today can use the rhythmic motions of the visceral system as important therapeutic tools.
Barral's clinical work with the viscera led to his development of a form of manual therapy that focuses on the internal organs, their environment and the potential influence on many structural and physiological dysfunctions. The term he coined for this therapy was Visceral Manipulation.
Visceral Manipulation relies on the palpation of normal and abnormal forces within the body. By using specific techniques, therapists can evaluate how abnormal forces interplay, overlap and affect the normal body forces at work. The goal is to help the body's normal forces remove abnormal effects, whatever their sources. Those effects can be global, encompassing many areas of bodily function.
HOW DOES VISCERAL MANIPULATION HELP YOU? 內臟筋膜鬆動術能有什麼幫助？
Visceral Manipulation is used to locate and solve problems throughout the body. It encourages your own natural mechanisms to improve the functioning of your organs, dissipate the negative effects of stress, enhance mobility of the musculoskeletal system through the connective tissue attachments, and influence general metabolism. Today, a wide variety of healthcare professionals perform Visceral Manipulation. Practitioners include osteopathic physicians, allopathic physicians, doctors of chiropractic, doctors of Oriental medicine, naturopathic physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, massage therapists and other licensed body workers.
HOW IS VISCERAL MANIPULATION PERFORMED? 內臟筋膜鬆動術是如何操作的？
Visceral Manipulation is based on the specific placement of soft manual forces to encourage the normal mobility, tone and motion of the viscera and their connective tissues. These gentle manipulations can potentially improve the functioning of individual organs, the systems the organs function within, and the structural integrity of the entire body.
Harmony and health exist when motion is free and excursion is full - when motion is not labored, overexcited, depressed, or conflicting with neighboring structures and their mobility. Therapists using Visceral Manipulation assess the dynamic functional actions as well as the somatic structures that perform individual activities. They also evaluate the quality of the somatic structures and their functions in relation to an overall harmonious pattern, with motion serving as the gauge for determining quality.
Due to the delicate and often highly reactive nature of the visceral tissues, gentle force precisely directed reaps the greatest results. As with other methods of manipulation that affect the body deeply, Visceral Manipulation works only to assist the forces already at work. Because of that, trained therapists can be sure of benefiting the body rather than adding further injury or disorganization.
HOW DID VISCERAL MANIPULATION BEGIN? 內臟筋膜鬆動術是如何起源的？
Jean-Pierre Barral first became interested in biomechanics while working as a registered physical therapist of the Lung Disease Hospital in Grenoble, France. That's where he met Dr. Arnaud, a recognized specialist in lung diseases and a master of cadaver dissection. Working with Dr. Arnaud, Barral followed patterns of stress in the tissues of cadavers and studied biomechanics in living subjects. This introduced him to the visceral system, its potential to promote lines of tension within the body, and the notion that tissues have memory. All this was fundamental to his development of Visceral Manipulation. In 1974, Barral earned his diploma in osteopathic medicine from the European School of Osteopathy in Maidstone, England. When Barral was at osteopathic school, there were no classes in visceral work. Working primarily with articular and structural manipulation, he began forming the basis for Visceral Manipulation during an unusual session with a patient he'd been treating with spinal manipulations.
當Jean-Pierre Barral在法國 Grenoble肺部疾病醫院擔任註冊物理治療師時，他開始對生物力學感到興趣。在那，他認識了Dr. Arnaud，一位公認的肺部疾病專家與屍體解剖大師。與他工作期間，Barral開始探索屍體組織的壓力模式並學習活體的生物力學。這引領他進入內臟系統，他發現改變身體內的張力線是有可能的，而且組織是有記憶性的。這就是他內臟筋膜鬆動術發展的基石。1974年時，Barral拿到了英國Maidstone歐洲骨病學校的骨病醫師文憑。在骨病學校時Barral並沒有學習內臟部份的治療，所以最初他只操作關節與結構的調整。他開始架構內臟按摩的療法是起因於一段與他脊椎治療患者的異遇。
During the preliminary examination, Barral was surprised to find appreciable movement. The patient confirmed that he felt relief from his back pain after going to an "old man who pushed something in his abdomen."
This incident piqued Barral's interest in the relationship between the viscera and the spine. That's when he began exploring stomach manipulations with several patients, with successful results gradually leading him to develop Visceral Manipulation. Between 1975 and 1982, Barral taught spinal biomechanics at England's European School of Osteopathy. In collaboration with Dr. Jean-Paul Mathieu and Dr. Pierre Mercier, he published Articular Vertebrae Diagnosis.
這個事件讓Barral對內臟與脊椎之間的關聯產生興趣，他又在其他患者身上進行胃部的調整，隨著這些成功的試驗，他慢慢發展成內臟筋膜鬆動術(VM)。1975～1982間，Barral在英國歐洲骨病學校教導脊椎生物力學，他與Dr. Jean-Paul Mathieu和Dr. Pierre Mercier共同研究，推廣椎體關節診斷法。
Using his work with Dr. Arnaud as a foundation, Barral continued to investigate how the thickening of tissues in the body creates areas of greater mechanical tension that, in turn, pull on surrounding tissues. That discovery led him to the theoretical and practical development of visceral listening techniques.
Barral's development of manual thermal evaluation began in 1971 during another treatment session. While treating a female patient, he felt a strong emanation coming from her mammary gland. He learned she had been operated on for a tumor in that area. Researching this phenomenon with other patients, he discovered just how accurately areas of stress in the body could be located by palpating the associated energy, which proved to be thermal. Consequent research has added manual thermal evaluation to many practitioners' evaluation tools.
With the help of Dr. Serge Cohen, a Grenoble radiologist, Barral also documented changes in the viscera before and after manipulation. They employed x-ray fluoroscopy and ultrasound to record changes in position and motion, as well as fluid exchange and evacuation. Later they conducted additional research with a team of electrical engineers and technicians using infrared emissions from the body.
在Dr. Serge Cohen(格勒諾布爾的放射科專家)協助下，Barral也開始記錄下內臟治療前後的改變。他們利用X光和超音波記錄身體內靜態與動態的改變，如液體的調換與流動。後來他們更進一步與電氣工程師和療法人員合作研究人體散發的紅外線。
Jean-Pierre Barral began teaching Visceral Manipulation in the United States in 1985. Since then he has trained a team of International Teachers that teach Visceral Manipulation seminars around the world. He has also authored numerous textbooks for healthcare professionals, including: Visceral Manipulation, Visceral Manipulation II, Urogenital Manipulation, The Thorax, Manual Thermal Evaluation, as well as Trauma: An Osteopathic Approach, Manual Therapy for the Peripheral Nerves, and Manual Therapy for the Cranial Nerves (the latter three were co-authored with Alain Croibier, D.O.). Jean-Pierre Barral has also authored a book for the general public, Understanding the Messages of Your Body, which discusses the link between our organs and our emotions.
1985年Jean-Pierre Barral在美國開始教導內臟筋膜鬆動術，之後開始訓練一批國際性的講師，在世界各地主持教授內臟筋膜鬆動術的研討會。他也著作了幾本專業健康照護的教科書，包括：Visceral Manipulation, Visceral Manipulation II, Urogenital Manipulation, The Thorax, Manual Thermal Evaluation 和Trauma: An Osteopathic Approach, Manual Therapy for the Peripheral Nerves, Manual Therapy for the Cranial Nerves(最後三本與Alain Croibier, D.O.共同著作)。Jean-Pierre Barral也寫了一本”Understanding the Messages of Your Body”給一般大眾，探討我們身體與情緒的關聯。
Barral continues to research and develop manual therapy techniques while maintaining a full clinical practice. Thanks to his pioneering work, candidates in several European countries must now pass a rigorous test in Visceral Manipulation to earn a diploma in osteopathy, as they have adopted his Visceral Manipulation techniques, just as many other manual therapy professions around the world.